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What is a Computer?

A computer system is a mix of electronic hardware and software,

It accepts data as input and processes it to provide us with an

output. But, it can only follow the instructions that we give it.

    A computer is similar to a television, which takes input from a remote control like the channel number and displays the output on the TV Screen in the form of the correct channel.


Input-Process-output

 

Input:-

     An input device is used to feed information to the computer.

     It is also used to instruct the computer to perform specific actions, such as opening a file, closing a file or saving a file. The most commonly used input devices on a computer are keyboard and mouse.

 

Process:-

    The process device performs actions as per your instructions and gives the required output. It also stores information in storage devices so that you can view it or use it at a later point in time. Some examples of process device is Processor and storage devices are RAM, hard drive and DVD(Digital Versatile Disc)/CD drive.

Output:-

    These devices are used to display or produce the result

     A simple example of output is anything you view on your computer monitor.

     Another example of an output device is a printer.

Other Gadgets that work like a PC(LAPTOP,Tablets etc)

Hardware devices

Laptop:-

Laptops are also called notebooks.

They are small in size, light in weight and can be carried anywhere.

They include all the components of a desktop personal computer.

 Laptops have rechargeable batteries for power supply so can be used anywhere.

Tablet:- Tablets are similar to laptops, but smaller They usually provide a touch-screen display where the instructions can be provided by touch, other input devices are not needed. A tablet provides a built in keyboard. You can use your fingertip or a stylus (pen-like device) to provide inputs through the keyboard.- Tablets are growing in popularity because they can also be used as a smartphone,

Smartphone:- A Smartphone is an advanced mobile phone that combines the features of a personal computer. It integrates the touchscreen display feature of tablets, making it easy to use. The screen is often too small to use, making it a useful device for simple tasks such as checking emails, using Google maps for finding directions, locating local restaurants and so on.

PARTS OF COMPUTER 

Monitor:-

    The Monitor is the display component. It displays text and images on screen.

Peripherals:-

   A peripheral device is a device, such as a keyboard or printer that is not part of the basic computer (i.e., the memory and microprocessor).-

Examples of peripherals:- Mouse, keyboard, printer and monitor.

 

   Mouse is another way of giving instructions to the computer. It is also used to navigate the various resources on the computer in Graphics User Interface (GUI) mode.

 

Keyboard:- A keyboard is an external input device used to type data into the computer system It usually includes alphabets, numbers and other common symbols.

USB - Universal Serial Bus Port:-

    The CPU may also have USB connectors in the front panel. Pen drives or external hard disks can be connected to the Front USB ports or to the back USB ports

Audio Connectors:-

   Audio connectors can include connectors for the microphone, speakers and headphones.

Heat Sink Assembly:-

    A heat sink is an electronic device that includes a fan to keep the processor and other parts of the CPU cool because the CPU produces a lot of heat, while active.

 

Motherboard:-

    The motherboard is a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) to which all the other components are connected. It helps all components to work together to produce the required output and controls the functioning of the various Components.

Processor:-

    The processor or central processing unit (CPU) is the brain or the engine of the computer. It processes all the instructions that you give to the computer and carries out the required tasks.

Random Access Memory (RAM):-

    Random Access Memory or RAM stores all the instructions that you provide when the computer is on.- However, the information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is shutdown.

Back USB Connectors:- A Universal Serial Bus (USB) connector is a connector between a computer and peripheral device such as a mouse or keyboard.

    It is part of the USB interface, which includes the different types of ports, cables and connectors. There may be two or more connectors situated at the back of the CPU.

Expansion Cards:- Expansion Cards are added to the computer to boost the performance or the capabilities of the computer performance or update the capabilities of the computer

   The expansion cards include video or graphics card, sound card, network card and Bluetooth card. However, most of the times these cards are built into the motherboard.

DVI:-

   Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). The digital interface is used to connect a video source, such as a video display controller, to a display device, such as a computer monitor.

VGA:-

    Stands for "Video Graphics Array." It is the standard monitor or display interface used in most PCs. Therefore, if a montior is VGA-compatible, it should work with most new computers. The VGA standard was originally developed by IBM in 1987 and allowed for a display resolution of 640x480 pixels.

 

S-Video:-

    S-video (short for Super-video) is an older type of video signal that's transmitted in varying electrical signals over wires to represent the original video.

Power Supply Unit:- This unit is responsible for converting the power received from the main-line(AC) into the power required by the motherboard (DC) and other components to operate.

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction,

in contrast to Direct current (DC) which flows only in

one direction.

 

Hard Disk Drive (HDD):-

   The Hard Disk Drive is the secondary storage device used to store data and instructions. It stores all the applications that are installed in the system, your files and folders.

Optical Disk Drive (ODD):-

    The Optical Disk Drive allows you to run CDs and DVD and even copy data to CD or a DVD (burn to CD/DVD).

Router:- A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks- Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet.

Modem:- modem is a combined device for modulation and demodulation, for example between the digital data of a computer and the analogue signal of a telephone line

Modulation:-   

    Modulation is a process through which audio, video, image or text information is added to an electrical or optical carrier signal to be transmitted over a telecommunication or electronic medium. Modulation enables the transfer of information on an electrical signal to a receiving device that demodulates the signal to extract the blended information.

Demodulation:-

    Demodulation is extracting the original information-bearing signal from a carrier wave. A demodulator is an electronic circuit(or computer program in a software-defined radio) that is used to recover the information content from the modulated carrier wav

Additional Components:-

   These components give a better experience of using a computer system.

   You may not always need some or even any of these. They include Graphics, Sound and network Cards, Modem, Router as well as speakers and external storage are some additional components that are optional depending on your requirements.

Tools required:-

    Some tools required for assembling or disassembling a computer are:-  

•Phillips-Head Screwdriver

•Needle-Nosed Pliers

•Cable Ties

•Anti-Static Wrist Strap

•Pocket Knife

•Small Flashlight

•Link free Cloth

Phillips-Head Screw driver:-  The magnetic tip will prevent screws falling into the PC and will let you get access to drives and other parts in your system case.

Needle-Nosed Pliers:- Needle-Nosed Pliers are very handy for grasping small items, removing and inserting jumpers on motherboards and hard drives.

You can also use a pair of Tweezers, if pliers are not available

Plastic Cable Ties- Plastic cable ties are useful for neatly bundling wires and cables away from fans and other components inside the computer. If you can't find them, electrical tape is an acceptable substitute.

The Anti-Static Wrist Strap:- The Anti-Static Wrist Strap is an elastic strap connected to a wire with alligator clip on the other end. The alligator clip is attached to a metal part of the computer chassis and the elastic band slipped around your wrist .Use an Anti-Static Wrist Band to avoid any static current damage to any component

Pocket Knife:- A pocket knife is useful for cutting wire and stripping insulation.

Small Flashlight:- A small flashlight is used to light up areas of the CPU that you cannot see well.- The insides of PC boxes are quite dark and have small indicators which you will need to see.

Soft Lint-free Cloth:-

    A soft lint-free cloth can be used for cleaning the monitor and other computer components.

Safety and Precaution Tips:-

  • Take off any metal objects on your arms or fingers such as bracelets, rings or watches. Even if your unit is unplugged, there may still be some residual electric charges.
  • Make sure your hands are completely dry to avoid damaging any mechanical parts as well as to avoid electrocution.
  • An antistatic wrist band is used to safely ground a person working on electronic equipment such as computers, to prevent build-up of static electricity in the body.
  • Prepare a place to keep any screws that you may remove. A container or piece of paper with labels for each part (casing, motherboard, CD drive, etc.) is ideal to avoid confusion between the similar-looking screws.
  • Handle all parts with care. Place each piece you remove carefully down onto as table surface.
  • When removing any cables, wires or ribbons, make sure to grasp the wire at the base or head to keep it from breaking.
  • Be careful not to drop any small parts (particularly screws) into unreachable areas such as into the computer fan or disk drive.
  • Take note of these three of the most damaging things to a computer:
  • Moisture (sweat, drinking water)
  • shock (electric or from being dropped)dust (any debris from household dust to bits of food).


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